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This page includes a sampling of research that supports the
Neuro-developmental and Sound Programmes of therapy used at Map & Compass.  If you would like to dive deeper, there are many more studies available online.  This is one of the most exciting fields in science and study today.  
The studies listed are just a taste of this work, but it's exciting that these  programmes of remediation are backed by over 4 decades of research in the field. 


*Note for Clinicians and Teachers:  If you are interested in finding out more about this work and how it could be used in your practice or your classroom,  please get in touch to find out more about the training for clinicians and the INPP and Johansen School Programmes.

A sample of research linking physical development and/or primitive reflexes to educational performance and behaviour (chronological)

Parmenter C, 1975.  The asymmetric tonic neck reflex in normal first and third grade children.  American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 29:463-468.


Rider B, 1976. Relationship of postural reflexes to learning disabilities.  American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 25/5:239-243.

Bender M, 1976.  Bender Purdue reflex test and training manual.  Academic Publications. San Rafael. CA. Blythe P, 1978.Minimal brain dysfunction and the treatment of psychoneuroses. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 22/4:247-255.

Blythe P. McGlown D, 1981.  MBD and OBD.  Swedish Medical Journal. 78/1-2.


Blythe P, 1982. Agoraphobia – is it organic?  World Medicine.  July 10. 1982.


Goddard SA, 1995.  The role of primitive reflexes in the development of the visual system.  Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 6/2:31-35.


Goddard SA, Hyland D. 1998.  Screening for Neurological Dysfunction in the Specific Learning Difficulty Child.  The British Journal of Occupational Therapy.61/10:459-464.


Goddard Blythe SA, 2000.  Early Learning in the Balance. Priming the First A,B,C.   British Journal of Learning Support. 15/4:154-158.


McPhillips M, Hepper P, Mulhern G, 2000.  Effects of replicating primary reflex movements on specific reading difficulties in children: A randomised double blind controlled trial.  Lancet. 355/2:537-541.


Goddard Blythe SA, 2001.  Neurological Dysfunction as a Significant Factor in Children Diagnosed with Dyslexia.  Proceedings of The 5th International British Dyslexia Conference.  University of York. April 2001.


Taylor M, Houghton S, Chapman E, 2004. Primitive reflexes and Attention Deficit Disorder: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education (Vol. 19/1)

McPhillips M, Sheehy N. 2004 Prevalence of persistent primary reflexes in children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia.10/4:316-338

Goddard Blythe SA, 2005.  Releasing educational potential through movement.  A summary of individual studies carried out using The INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools with Children with Special Needs.  Child Care in Practice. 11/4:415-432. 

Goddard Blythe SA, 2009.  Attention balance and coordination – the A,B,C of learning success.  Wiley-Blackwell.  Chichester. 2nd edition 2017.

Brown,CG, 2010. Improving fine motor skills in young children: an intervention study. Educational Psychology in Practice. 26/3: 269-27

Kurt S, 2011.  Findings of impaired motor cortex inhibition in ADHD offers potential for quantitative evaluation of children.  Neurology Today. 11/4:31-32.

Mink JW, 2011.  Faulty brakes?  Inhibitory processes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology.76/7:592-593

King KL, Scahill CJ, 2011.  Combining physical activity with classroom lessons results in improved test scores. American Academy of Pediatrics. Science Daily. 

Bart O, Jarus T, Erez Y, Rosenberg L, 2011. How do young children with DCD participate and enjoy daily activities? Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32/4:1317-1322. Special Issue: Developmental Coordination Disorder 

Hogan MJ, Staff RT, Bunting BP, Murray AD, Ahearn TS, Deary IJ, Whalley LJ. Cerebellar brain volume accounts for variance in cognitive performance in older adults. Cortex. 47/4:441-450, April 2011

Goddard Blythe SA, 2011. Neuromotor maturity as an indicator of developmental readiness for education.  In: Movement, Vision, Hearing – The Basis for Learning.  Kulesza EM (Ed).  Wydawnictwo Akademie Pedagogiki Specjalnej im Marii Grzegorzewskiej. Warsaw  September 2011. pp.121-136.

Alibali MW, Spencer RC, Knox L, Sotaro K, 2011. Spontaneous Gestures Influence Strategy Choices in Problem Solving Psychological Science. 22/9: 1138-1144.


Singh A, Uitdewilligen L, Twisk JWR, van Mechelin W, Chinapaw JMJ, 2012. Physical activity and performance at school: A systematic review of the literature including a methodical quality assessment. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 166/1:49-55.

Martin J, 2011. Environmental factors predict undeserved children’s physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. June 2011.

Blythe P, Goddard Blythe SA, 2012. Correcting Clinical Facts. Abnormal Primitive Reflexes in Behavioural Optometry and Vision Therapy. .Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 23/ 5-6:138. 

Konicarova J & BobP., 2013, Asymmetric tonic neck reflex and symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in children. May 2013. The International journal of neuroscience 123/11.  DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2013.801471


Berg A, Fitzgerald S, Neurophysiological training in children with motor difficulties. Fysioterapeuten 13.1.2014.

North Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB) 2004. An evaluation of the pilot INPP movement programme in primary schools in the North Eastern Education and Library Board (NEELB), Northern Ireland.  Final Report. Prepared by Brainbox Research Ltd for the NEELB.


Gieysztor EZ, Choińska AM & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2015.  Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated problems in healthy pre-school children.  Archives of Medical Science :167-173.


Gieysztor EZ, Sadowska L,  Choińska AM & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2016.  Trunk rotation due to persistence of primitive reflexes in early school-age children.  Adv Clin Exp Med.  2018:27/3:363-366.


Gieysztor EZ, Sadowska L &  Choińska AM, 2017.   The degree of primitive reflexes integration as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological maturity of healthy pre-school and early school age children.   Piel ZDR Publ. 2017:26/1:5-11.


Andrich P, Shihada MB, Vinci MK, Wrenhaven SL, Goodman GD, 2018. Statistical relationships between visual skill deficits and retained primitive reflexes in children. Optometry and Visual Performance. 6/3:106-111.


Goddard Blythe SA, 2018. Children’s developmental needs should lead policy.  Early Years Education (EYE). 20/3:22-24. July 2018.


Ivanović LB et al. 2018.  Does neuromotor immaturity represent a risk for acquiring basic academic skills in school-age children?  Vojnoisanitetski Pregled.   Military Medical and Pharmaceutical Review.  January 2018.


Brannigan R et al. The role of prenatal stress as a pathway to personality disorder: longitudinal birth cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 6th September 2019.


Taylor B, Hanna D & McPhillips M., 2019. Motor problems in children with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties: Motor problems and EBD. British Journal of Educational Psychology 90(2). DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12327


Gieysztor E , Choińska AM,  Pecuch A, Kowal M, Borowicz W & Paprocka-Borowicz M.,2019.  The level of primitive reflex integration in children who play a musical instrument.  Pediatr. Pol. 2019:94/5:293-298.


Goddard Blythe SA, 2019.  Leaps towards learning.  Early Years Education (EYE) magazine. 21/6:18-20.  October 2019.


Pecuch A , Gieysztor E , Telenga M  , Wolanska E , Kowal M & Paprocka-Borowicz M., Primitive Reflex Activity in Relation to the Sensory Profile in Healthy Preschool Children.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8210; doi:10.3390/ijerph17218210


Goddard Blythe SA, 2020. The Body Learns Too: How the Brain–Body 

Relationship Helps to Lay Down Highways of the Mind. Self and Society. 48/2. Autumn 2020.

Mironova Tabachová J, Vitásková K., 2020.  Evaluation of primary reflexes in children with communication disorder aged 5 – 10 years in relation to preschool and primary school competencies. Proceedings of the 13th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. 9-10 November, 2020. Online Conference. ISSN: 2340-1095

Goddard Blythe SA and Lunina N, 2020. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning, Modern methods of prevention and correction of developmental disorders for children: Tradition and innovation: Sat. materials of the II International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference, October 22-23, 2020. ed. O. N. Usanova. - M .: Kogito-Center - Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2020 .--  pp. 11-23.  ISBN 978-5-89353-607-2.


Zielińska M, Goddard Blythe SA, 2021. School functioning of students with neuromotor immaturity. International Journal of Pedagogy Innovation and New Technologies journal Vol. 7, No. 2, 2020, pp. 40-46.


Goddard Blythe SA. Duncombe R. Preedy P. Gorely T., 2021. Neuromotor readiness for school:  the primitive reflex status of young children at the start and end of their first year at school in the United Kingdom.  Education 3- 13.  March 2021.

Matuszkiewicz M and Tadeusz Gałkowsk T.,  2021. Developmental Language Disorder and Uninhibited Primitive Reflexes in Young Children.  Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. February 2021.

Gieysztor EZ, Pecuch A, Kowal M, Borowicz W  & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2020.  Pelvic symmetry is influenced by Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex during Children’s Gait.  Int. J. of Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020:17/4759.

Demiy A, Kalemba A, Lorent M, Pecuch A, Wolańska E, Telenga M & Gieysztor EZ., 2020.  A child’s perception of their developmental difficulties in relation to their adult assessment.  Analysis of the INPP Questionnaire.  J. Pers. Med. 2020:10/156.

Hickey J, Feldhacker DR, 2020. Primitive reflex retention and attention among preschool children.  Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools and Early Intervention. April 2020.

Pecuch A, Gieysztor EZ, , Wolańska E, Telenga M & Paprocka-Borowicz M., 2021.  Primitive reflex activity in relation to motor skills in healthy pre-school children. Brain Sci. 2021:11/967.

The Correlation between Residual Primitive Reflexes and Clock Reading Difficulties in School-Aged Children—A Pilot Study.  Kalemba A,  Lorent M,  Goddard Blythe SA  & Gieysztor, E.   International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.  2023, 20, 2322. ijerph2003232


Domingo_Sanz VA, 2023.Inhibition of Primitive Reflexes and Its Relationship with
Visual Projection in Children and Adolescents.  Optometry & Visual Performance. ISSN 2325-3487

Goddard Blythe, SA  Are Immature Neuromotor Skills Significant Factors in Educational Under-achievement and Special Educational Needs? Literature review of the role of Primitive Reflexes as Indicators and Measures of Neuromotor Immaturity. Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology, Wielka Brytania. Szkoła Specjalna.  2023-04-30

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with (a)symmetric tonic neck primitive reflexes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Meng Wang 1Jing Yu 2Hyun-Duck Kim 3Angelita Bautista Cruz 1

Scheveig F & Bucci MP, 2023. Postural and Proprioceptive Deficits Clinically Assessed in Children with Reading Disabilities: A Case-Control Study Vision 7: 37.

The Relationship between Retained Primitive Reflexes and Hemispheric Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Robert Melillo Gerry Leisman Calixto Machado Yanin Machado-Ferrer Mauricio Chinchilla-Acosta

 Ty Melillo Eli Carmeli

Published: 30 July 2023

Identification and reduction of retained primitive reflexes by sensory stimulation in autism spectrum disorder: effects on qEEG networks and cognitive functions

Robert John Melillo, Gerry Leisman ,Calixto Machado, Eli Carmeli

Published: 28 December 2023

If you'd like some books to get you started, the collection of books by Sally Goddard Blythe are good for all sorts of readership: parents, educators, clinicians, etc. 

Please contact Map & Compass for further book and research recommendations according to your particular area of interest.

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